Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. Ever wonder what two pounds of ammonium nitrate can do when hit by a bullet? The explosion was officially announced as an accident. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. Lebanon explosion: What is ammonium nitrate, which authorities claim to be behind the blast AFP Washington, August 05, 2020 08:54 IST Updated: August 05, 2020 17:16 IST Aluminum nitrate dissolves in ethanol at 8.63 g/100mL. 1 man was killed and 12 were injured. ALUMINUM NITRATE is an oxidizing agent. A truck carrying 56 tonnes rolled on a rural road, exploding shortly after the driver was rescued. When ammonium nitrate explodes, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas. Yet, ammonium nitrate is available in nearly every garden center, and serves as one of the major fertilizers used throughout the world. The Beirut explosion is again a very sad event with disastrous consequences, but it is not a surprise in the sense of a new phenomenon. Ammonium nitrate is shock sensitive when mixed with titanium, tin, or aluminum. They arrived on the scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire. [2] Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947 which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. Harmful if swallowed. The heart-wrenching visuals shattered the heart of millions. Washington] U. S. Dept. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, NASA, 1964, Inquiry Report Department of Mining and Petroleum, Government of Papua New Guinea 1994, Exponent Engineering & Scientific Consulting, Largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/191408086.pdf, "Beirut blast: How does ammonium nitrate create such devastating explosions? As of water, it is soluble at 160 g/100 mL at 100 °C. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. The fertilizer storage facility of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition (SSD) fire in January 2003. Aluminum nitrate is a salt composed of aluminum and nitric acid, belonging to a group of reactive chemicals - organic nitrate and nitrite compounds. And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. In an evaporating pan of the Repauno works, du Pont Co., 4,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate exploded, possibly caused by a clogged air lance leading to overheating of the nitrate. While there were a lot of conspiracy theories around the world, Lebanon PM clarified that thousands of tonnes of Ammonium Nitrate was … Fused ammonium nitrate mixed with powdered metals such as zinc, copper, lead, and aluminum can lead to a violent and sometimes explosive reaction. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. Stored in the plant were 240 tons of Ammonium Nitrate. Video, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion, NYC bendy bus left drooping from overpass, Nazi camp no place for sledging, authorities warn, 'Violent gust of wind' caused Grand Canyon crash, Biden starts with brand new Potus Twitter account, North Korea unveils new submarine-launched missile, Trump takes final swipes at China's big companies, Frantic search for survivors of deadly explosion, Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says. Ammonium nitrate, which Lebanese authorities have said was the cause of the Beirut blast, is an odourless crystalline substance commonly used … This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.. Beirut explosion: A look at ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate on its own is not itself classified as dangerous. On August 4, 2020, a major port explosion caused devastating damage across the city of Beirut, Lebanon. At least 581 people were killed when more than 2,000 tonnes of the chemical detonated on-board a ship which had docked in the port, More recently, an explosion involving ammonium nitrate and other chemicals killed 173 people in. On 16 April 1947, at the Port of Texas City, 2,300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate … The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. The shockwave is produced from compressed air, he explains. The driver and six firemen were injured. "You won't just find ammonium nitrate in the ground," explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London. "You have a supersonic shockwave that is travelling through the air, and you can see that in the white spherical cloud which travels out from the centre, expanding upwards," says Prof Sella. The blast was heard 45 km away, and registered by the seismographs at the Sodankylä geophysical observatory, over 270 km away. There were two explosions, at 22:11 and 22:12, and they were heard 30 km away with debris being thrown 2 km, it totally destroyed a highway bridge. A giant explosion occurs during the loading of fertilizer onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion By Helen Regan , Tamara Qiblawi, Ghazi Balkiz, Ben Wedeman and … VideoInside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. 1.4) Very insensitive substances with mass explosion hazard (Div. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. "The air expands rapidly and cools suddenly and the water condenses, which causes the cloud," he adds. A fire broke out in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) in a barn, which at the time of the accident contained a gasoline-powered forklift, a battery charger, two 13-kg gas bottles, miscellaneous farm machinery, 500 kg of quicklime, 500 wooden crates, 6,000 to 7,000 plastic crates, and between 3 and 5 tonnes of ammonium nitrate packaged in big bags. The derailed cars included: four fuel oil tank cars, two tank cars of gasoline, three tank cars of petroleum oil, four cars of lube oil drums, three cars of liquid fertilizer, one car of fuming nitric acid and two cars of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate. 240 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in sacks exploded after being hit by a shell from a nearby fire in a munitions train. … The mixture made from fertilizer containing e.g. The Great Kent Explosion in 1916. On its own, ammonium nitrate is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella. The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. But what caused the Beirut explosion? Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos, Rise and fall of the Spanish state's secret fixer, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. In this study, an explosion combustion phenomenon of ammonium nitrate (ρ=1.7kg/cm3) was used instead of the explosive PETN and the ultra-high-speed destruction phenomenon of aluminum cylinder was analyzed. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been "a dismal failure". Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. The blast shattered hundreds of windows in the city center, over two kilometers away, and hurled bricks and chunks of concrete several kilometers away. And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. But even ANFO explosive made from fertilizer containing 30% of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher than 2000 kJ/kg. On December 17, 1960, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last 23 cars were derailed. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. The nitrate ion is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two or more ions that are covalently bonded. Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a red, bad-smelling gas . ... Use spark-free and explosion-proof equipment. In the initial aftermath, the disaster is reported to have … "If there isn't much wind, it could become a danger to the people nearby," says Prof Sella. Uses. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. ", "Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant 21 September 1921", French Ministry of Environment, Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant (at this time BASF was occupied by French authorities, Explosions Following A Fire: Major Catastrophies, "En 1947, le nitrate d'ammonium impliqué dans une explosion meurtrière au port de Brest", Miscellaneous Shipwrecks of the Red Sea Not Found in Egyptian Waters, Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, "Typpi räjähti lähtemättömästi oululaisten mieliin", EPA Chemical Accident Investigation Report Terra Industries, Inc., Nitrogen Fertilizer Facility, Port Neal, Iowa, "Fire inside a barn and explosion of fertiliser 2 October 2003 Saint Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) France", "Un camión lleno de nitrato estalla tras un choque y causa dos muertos en Castelló", "Small-scale experiments of self-sustaining decomposition of NPK fertilizer and application to events aboard the Ostedijk in 2007", "Internal report into the mexican explosion data", "Evacuation Lifted, Fire at Texas Chemical Plant Under Control", "El Dorado Chemical Company goes up in smoke! In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. The fire started around 3 PM, and fire-fighters were notified of the blaze at 4:02 PM. This damn thing seriously hurt my ears and i felt a huge shockwave on my chest haha it was insane! Videos from Beirut showed smoke billowing from a fire, and then a mushroom cloud following the blast. Ammonium nitrate. With such a powerful blast, ammonium nitrate has been used by armies around the world as an explosive. Ammonium nitrate: What is the chemical blamed for Beirut explosion, and how could it produce such a powerful blast? When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. On April 19, 1995 McVeigh parked the van filled with ammonium nitrate, and the other necessary materials to make a bomb, in front of the building where the AFT offices were located. Ammonium nitrate is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. The Summers Fertilizer Company plant suffered a fire, causing 400 tons of stored ammonium nitrate to be consumed by fire. illus., tables. Additionally, in the explosion, not all of the ammonium nitrate is used up and exploded. This makes it more dangerous because if a fire reaches it, the chemical reaction will be much more intense. An ammonium nitrate explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen oxides. A fire was detected on the Finnish cargo ship. 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. If you try this, stand far, far away! (U.S. Bureau of Mines. There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions: Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). But storing it can be a problem, and it has been associated with serious industrial accidents in the past. As Lebanon's investigation into the devastating blast in Beirut continues, officials have pointed to a possible cause: A massive shipment of agricultural … ANE is an emulsion of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode. AD. Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. Porous ammonium nitrate(V) 91.85 88.71 85.23 Flaked aluminum 3.64 7.27 12.12 Oil FLEX 401 4.51 4.02 2.65 Results and Discussion Content of the explosion toxic products Determination of toxic gases released at the detonation of explosive samples Explosions. A crater 9 m (30 ft) wide and 1.8 m (6 ft) deep was created due to the explosion. Ammonium nitrate. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Nearly 3,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate - taken from a ship off the coast of Beirut six years ago and then stored in a warehouse - has been blamed for the explosion that ripped through the port area of the Lebanese capital on Tuesday. "The real problem is that over time it will absorb little bits of moisture and it eventually turns into an enormous rock," he says. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Washington] U. S. Dept. 1.3) No significant hazard (Div. The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000. The most notorious confirmed ammonium nitrate explosion prior to Tuesday was the 1947 Texas City Disaster. Aluminum Nitrate / Molecular model of spheres Aluminum Nitrate / Molecular model beads and rods Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate / Molecular spheres model Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate / Molecular model beads and rods Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. Uses. At 5:12 PM the explosion occurred. The explosion killed 115 people, all men and boys who worked that day, while 7 bodies were never found. Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. Aluminum nitrate is soluble in all of these substances. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. The column AN states the amount of ammonium nitrate consumed in the disaster in metric tonnes. Aluminum nitrate was tried to be dissolved in such substances like water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol. The mixtures of AN based fertilizers and aluminium have the high heat of explosion. This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. The accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM. [citation needed] France Toulouse: September 21, 2001: 31 200-300 This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. An A.W. .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. What is ammonium nitrate? It is tragic that calamities with AN … The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires a detonator and fuel. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). Ammonium nitrate explosions can cause significant destruction as shown with examples in West, Texas (2013) and Tianjin, China (2015). 1.5) Extremely insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard (Div. For an industrial ammonium nitrate disaster to occur, a lot needs to go wrong. Ammonium Nitrate: The Chemical That Caused the Explosion in Beirut. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Beirut blast: Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says, Biden unveils $1.9tn US economic relief package. illus., tables. © 2021 BBC. 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The fire was controlled after most of the material was removed by mechanical means. Nearly 600 people (U.S. Bureau of Mines. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion… Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. August 6, 2020, 2:54 PM • 6 min read. Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0%, CAS Number: 7784-27-2,(06275 Honeywell).Shop now or request a quote. Beirut explosion: What caused Beirut explosion? The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. It has also been used in several terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. Indian Regulation For Ammonium Nitrate . Aluminum sulfate has also been used as a drying additive for ammonium nitrate. But the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an explosive. Tragically, this … In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. "So you can see it doesn't take very big volumes but certainly, urgently, that should be reduced to low levels," Mr Craig said. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. In that instance, Timothy McVeigh used two tonnes of ammonium nitrate to create a bomb which destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. The explosion, which could be heard at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater five metres deep. But what is ammonium nitrate and why can it be so dangerous? 1.2) Fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. In addition, finely dispersed mixture of four components (ammonium nitrate, aluminum, powdered sugar, and TNT in a proportion of 76: 8: 12: 4) was used. The examples are, In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate (AN) itself (, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 22:14. At least 150-200 yards! A fire then started in the trailer's cabin and at around 20:43, a huge explosion occurred, resulting in 28 deaths and around 150 more people injured. A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. In 1994 McVeigh and his partners purchased 5,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to illegally create a bomb constructed in a rented van. 2. 1.6) GHS criteria not met Its biggest use is as a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is also used to create explosives for mining. In this particular accident, neither car of ammonium nitrate exploded. The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … On January 9, 1960, an explosion at the Typpi Oy industrial site in the Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108]. That's because it's synthetic, made by reacting ammonia with nitric acid, he says. A truck carrying 12 tons of ammonium nitrate experienced an electrical fault and caught fire north of, On November 29, 1988, at 4:07 AM two trailers containing approximately 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of the explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate with fuel oil) exploded at a construction site located near the 87th street exit of Highway 71 in, At 9:45 am, 2 August 1994, 11 workers were killed when the sensitised AN emulsion plant they were working on exploded at the. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. The resultant dust explosion from as little as 35 grams of aluminum powder per cubic meter of air can yield overpressures in the order of 0.6 million Pascals 7 (MPa). On September 9, 2007, at around 20:00, near Monclova, Coahuila, México, a pickup truck lost control and crashed into a trailer loaded with 22 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil explosives (ANFO) leaving three occupants in the pick-up truck dead in the crash. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. ! Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. The orange plume is caused by the nitrogen dioxide, which is often associated with air pollution. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. Lebanese officials say ammonium nitrate, a substance used as fertilizer in agriculture, likely caused the massive explosion in Beirut. On April 4, 1925, and May 3, 1925, two carloads, each containing 220 barrels of ammonium nitrate, were dispatched from. mineral oil have the medium heat of explosion. Beirut explosion linked to Russian ship storing ammonium nitrate left in port, called 'floating bomb' Officials warned the ship was 'a floating bomb.' Weekly quiz: What's the Sex and the City reboot called? The devastating explosion at a port in Beirut yesterday evening (Aug. 4) that killed more than 100 people and injured at least 4,000 seems to have stemmed from a … What is ammonium nitrate? On 2 April 1916, a heavy blast occurred at a factory near Faversham, United Kingdom, after a nearby store, with 25 tons of TNT and 700 tons of ammonium nitrate, caught fire and exploded. Burning ammonium nitrate in an open field, for instance, isn't likely to result in an explosion, Rae said. Potentially as dangerous as the dry aluminum reaction with oxygen is the wet aluminum reaction Read about our approach to external linking. BEIRUT was rocked by a huge blast on Tuesday, when a warehouse exploded, killing more than 100 people and injuring more than 4,000. Past midnight, at 12:54 AM cars were derailed minor blast and/or projection hazard but. It also requires a detonator and fuel nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0,. Relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella industrial ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van [. Makes it more dangerous because if a fire, and fire-fighters were notified of the Interior, Bureau Mines. And then a mushroom cloud following the blast, most of the.. By large‐scale ammonium nitrate ( an ) detonations initiated by fires are well known of Fertiberia held a aluminium nitrate explosion (... Notified of the major fertilizers used throughout the world water condenses, which is made all over the and... For instance, is n't much wind, it is also used to create explosives for mining and 1.8 (! Paper, ammonium nitrate, fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate exploded in such substances like,! 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